Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Orlando, Florida The best place for vacation Orlando, Florida. Orlando is one of the most busy tourist locations in Florida, maybe even busier than the Miami beaches. This is because Orlando has many locations for all kinds of people, whether they are children, or adults. Orlando has many theme parks located on its famous strip, including Disneyworld, Wet n' Wild, Universal Studios, Ripley's Believe it or Not House. Sea World, and a host of other tourist locations. And out of all these places, the most interesting place to be at is Disneyworld. Many people think that Disneyworld is a place for children. This cannot be farther from the truth. Even though Disneyworld is designed for children and families, many adults can have a fun time there. Disneyworld is one of the biggest and most visited amusement parks in the world. The disneyworld in Orlando is also known as The Magic Kingdom and this is the best name for the place. Once you enter Disneyworld, you do enter into a magic kingdom. It is of no surprise that many adults have found Disneyworld to be an extremely entertaining. Even though most of the rides are meant for the children, the adults can take pleasure in being inside an architectural piece of wonderland. The Magic Kingdom is divided into many areas, and one of the most prominent, the area that comes in as soon as you enter the Magic Kingdom is the Main Street, usa. This street is made up of various architectural styles from the various states of usa, with much of the style being influence by Missouri and New England. The buildings on Main Street are built in such a way that they seem to be bigger than they actually are; the second story is smaller than the first, and the third smaller than the second is, giving the buildings a larger-than-life image. At the end of the Main Street is Cinderella's Castle, which is the trademark of the magic k ingdom. You really have to see it to appreciate its magical realm. The rest of the area is divided into different lands, such as the Frontier Land, the Adventure Land, the Land of Tomorrow, Liberty Square, and Fantasy Land. Adventureland is a paradise for children and a treat for the adults. It is made up of various foreign lands that represent the jungles of Africa, Asia, and South America. A make-belief Caribbean town square has also been built into this area to give a tropical feel to the area. This area has rides such as the Pirates of the Caribbean, Swiss Family Robinson Treehouse, and the Jungle. Cruise. Frontierland has been built in the place of the Wild West and the Rivers of America. This place has the looks of Rocky Mountains and railroads as it hosts rides such as the Big Thunder Mountain Railroad, Splash Mountain, and Tom Sawyer Island. Another area that is more popular for the children is Fantasyland. This is a colorful array of architecture that works together to represent the fantasyland of the children's minds. Includes rides such as Dumbo the Flying Elephant, Snow White's Scary Adventures, Cinderella's Golden Carrousel, and Mad Tea Party. Even though most of the rides and entertainment present inside the Magic Kingdom is meant for the kids, this does not mean that adults cannot enjoy them. The Magic Kingdom offers many packages and incentives for young couples to visit and there are more than a few freshly married people who have visited the Magic Kingdom for their honeymoon. Overall, the Magic Kingdom in Disneyworld, Orlando, Florida is a place for people of all ages and for all nationalities. It is a place one must visit at least once in their lifetime.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Sometime I also come across patients with challenging behaviour. Once I had a patient admitted on my ward named Mr F with challenging behaviour and communication was a problem. Understanding his request I found it very difficult, because the communication skills were very limited by the patient. One occasion became very frustrated with his behaviour and I became angry because of his demands. I got irritated and became rather Ã¢â¬Å"shortÃ¢â¬ with him. I realised that this approach is in fact negative and that I needed to change my way of thinking. To be a commencement worker I needed to use skills of empathy and realised that it could be easy for me to lash out. I needed to deal with this and adopt a positive approach. I took into account that I am a care worker and that I have to change my attitude and to give more of myself. I felt I have to learn more about individuals with challenging and complex needs. Any values of beliefs of my own needed to go on the back burner and not stereotype those I am working with. I had to improve my practice as well and seek feedback from my manager. My manager has given me feedback and has encouraged and appreciated my thoughts. She has worked with me to improve my practice and truthfully informed me about the problem with my behaviour to ensure that I was directed and able to deal more effectively with my clients with particular needs. I have attended training sessions on communication and few seminars on stress management. This I felt helped me to be more competent person and able to deal appropriately with my clients. The session on communications and learning disabilities lightened that my clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ problems were not their fault. I discovered that I had taken their behaviour personally.. In order for best practise to take place I needed knowledge about their disabilities, this has improved my practise and has helped me to understand them more. I have regular supervision regarding my practice and have been told I have improved and have become more professional in my approach. I see training as ongoing and valuable.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Germany was a totalitarian state, however, only to an extent due to differing perspectives Nazi Germany did not fit the universal criteria of what constitutes totalitarianism. It is unarguably necessary that Germany was ran by a single party, had absolute control over mass communication & media, had a systematic terror & police control as well as total control over the army. However, many have argued that Nazi Germany was not totalitarian as it did not have total control over the economy and HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s role in regime of the Nazism played a significant role in whether or not Germany was totalitarian. Views of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s role in the Nazi state concerning whether or not Germany was totalitarian changed over time, from when Hitler was the absolute centre and in complete control of Nazism to the view of Ã¢â¬ËWorking towards the FuhrerÃ¢â¬â¢. Germany was a totalitarian state to an extent. Joseph Goebbel was the Minister for Enlightenment and Propaganda, who strictly repressed all public communications such as censoring all aspects of newspapers, heavy censorship of films, events that were organised to place NazisÃ¢â¬â¢ message in a positive light as well as the effectively using the radio. Radios were cheap and when manufactured, they were preset to Nazi stations only. Through this aspect, civilians were constantly exposed and brainwashed to believe the righteousness of the principles of Nazism such as broadcasting HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s speeches in full and placing glorifying Nazis. Newspaper editors were told daily of what stories were to be published, opinions to be expressed and even graphics. The Ã¢â¬ËFuhrer MythÃ¢â¬â¢ played a significant role in Nazi propaganda: it portrayed Hitler to be a man who was born to lead Germany, ordinary yet extraordinary. Hitler had ended the Depression; he was anti-Marxist, thus he would save Germany from Communism; and he was willing to take action to save Germany from hated aspects such the Treaty of Versailles. The image portrayed was propaganda and was more or less a lie, thus proving that Nazi Germany was a totalitarian state. Hitler had learnt a lesson in 1923, to gain power and popularity he must gain it through the legal processes. After the series of events that lead to HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s appointment as Chancellor, he legally pushed out any parties that had any possible means of opposition out of the framework of Nazi Germany, therefore leaving no room for individuality. The sworn personal allegiance of the army to Hitler is also another factor that confirms that Nazi Germany was a totalitarian state. It is evident to understand that there are concepts in which Nazi Germany is not considered to be a totalitarian state. There are different viewpoints of Germany that determines whether or not Germany was a totalitarian state during the Nazi regime. One viewpoint is that Hitler was the absolute centre and in complete control of Nazism. This idea established that all aspects during his rule went with the direct consent from Hitler himself, no policies were made without the reference of his ideology and all successes & problems could be HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility. This aspect showed historians that Nazi Germany was a totalitarian state: Hitler had detailed understanding of specific situations, the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s grievances, EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s fear of communism, gaining power through legal proceedings and the importance of the link between terror and propaganda in which he used to his advantage to seize control over the entire country. This perspective is contrasted with the modern viewpoint of Ã¢â¬ËWorking towards the FuhrerÃ¢â¬â¢. Hitler was not interested in the day to day running of things, his attention was mainly concentrated on his Ã¢â¬ËwillÃ¢â¬â¢ and his plan for Germany which was a basis that took Germany forward. Often, Hitler would not make decisions hence leaving situations pending. Due to this issue, policy makers had to create or amend programs and policies that followed the in line of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s way of thinking. This concept explained the reasons why the regime become more radical as time wore on. HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs such as ridding the Jews, destroying the Bolsheviks, creating the Aryan race lead to such events such as the Night of the Broken Glass and killings of those who did not fit the criteria of the Aryan description. The idea that Hitler was seen to above the day to day running of things, played a part in demonstrating the Ã¢â¬ËFuhrer MythÃ¢â¬â¢ proved that he was beyond reproach thus, his followers must followed his line of thinking. This viewpoint shows that despite having complete control over media and communication, Germany was a totalitarian state, only to an extent. Another aspect that constitutes a totalitarian state is that it must have an official ideology. Nazi Germany, despite every civilian owning Ã¢â¬ËMein KampfÃ¢â¬â¢, did not have an official ideology like the Soviet Union, which in theory, wanted a classless society. Nazism was a cluster of disassociated ideas that were tied together by Hitler whereas the Soviet Union had Marxism and Communism. As a result of this failure to fill the point of having an official ideology, it shows that Germany was not a totalitarian state. Significant aspects of Nazi Germany proves that it was a totalitarian state, such as its complete control over media and communication, GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s evident systematic terror and control as well as power over the army. However, due to differing perspectives, it is clear that Germany was a totalitarian state, only to an extent as it did not have an official ideology, and total control over the economy
Microeconomic concepts (LEVEL 4) - Assignment Example The company operates 35 holiday parks and provides a wide range of holiday services such as bars and restaurants, sporting facilities, gaming activities and holiday resorts. Some of the internal factors that have made the organisation expand its market share include superior customer services, modern physical facilities, aggressive marketing efforts, excellent management leadership style and flat organisational structure. The company is geared at achieving its mission and strategic objectives. The external factors affecting the organisation include harsh economic environment, changes in technology, social environment changes, natural environmental protection issues and strict legal and regulatory framework. The company market structure is pure competition due to many competitors in the industry and availability of numerous substitutes. The company should differentiate the services, offer superior added services and extend the product portfolio in order to attain market leadership pos ition in the industry ((Tribe 2005, 176). Introduction Haven family Holidays is a tourism company that operates 35 holiday parks in the United Kingdom (Haven family Holidays 2012). The company boosts of the best facilities for the guests in camping and accommodation. Some services include sports clubs, live entertainment for guests and child-friendly venues and activities for kids. Additional activities include swimming programs, football and basket ball coaching (Haven family Holidays 2012). Business objectives Haven family holidays provide three specific types of holidays that include self-catering, caravan and camping and half-board. The company is the largest provider of domestic holidays in UK with recreational parks spread across England. Some of the products offered include luxurious holiday resorts, sporting facilities, corporate conference facilities, and meals (Haven family Holidays 2012). The objectives of Haven family holidays include growing the profits of the company e ach year in order to provide guests with additional value added services. Another objective is to ensure and environment whereby resources are utilized effectively and employee welfare is maintained through fulfilling jobs (Haven family Holidays 2012). Haven Family Holidays is also committed to providing holiday resort services in a safe, secure and environmentally-friendly manner in order to improve the attractions to the holiday resorts (Haven family Holidays 2012). Internal factors affecting Haven family holidays The internal environment consists of factors that are within the management control. Any business organization can alter the internal factors in order to attain competitive strength in the industry. I believe that some of the internal factors affecting Haven Family Holidays include human resources, physical facilities, the leadership capability, the mission and objectives of the organization, the corporate culture, the marketing activities, customer loyalty, the organiza tional structure and research and development activities. Haven Family Holidays attracts and retains qualified personnel in all business processes. In my
Sunday, July 28, 2019
How to prepare and recover from a Hurricane - Research Paper Example Besides the flying debris and flood coming in the wake of hurricanes are also quiet destructive. Hence, in the areas that are prone to hurricanes, it is certainly a good idea to prepare in advance. Such timely and prompt preparation could save many human lives and property and could well protect the people living in hurricane prone areas from the disaster and destruction caused by hurricanes and facilitates a better recovery after a hurricane (Wagner 6). Preparing for a Hurricane While making preparations for a hurricane it is imperative to select and identify a safe area where the families could weather the strong storms, tornadoes and rainfall accompanying a hurricane (Mitchell 7). This place could be a location within the home like some room located at the bottom floor or any other room in the house that has no windows. In case a home does not have a safe area than it is important that the family members in such homes do have access to at least two hurricane shelters located close to the home. In case a family member is suffering from some medical condition and will not be in a situation to shift on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own, than it is important to seek the help of the concerned professionals in advance (Burnett, Dyer & Pickins 10). While preparing for a hurricane it is also important to stock up the requisite quantities of water and food (Dickson 9). The families lying in the route of an imminent hurricane should have sufficient supplies of processed food and water in the stock that should last for a number of weeks (Dickson 9). In case the stock of food and water accrued by a family has gone old, it is important to replace this stock with the fresh supplies, well in time. Besides the preparations for a hurricane require stocking varied other emergency supplies like flashlights and extra batteries, strong and sturdy shoes, battery operated radios with extra batteries for them, cash, credit cards, first aid kits and manuals, important medicines, and non-electrical c an openers (Ready 1). It is also important to make arrangements for pets. Pets may not be accommodated in a hurricane shelter for cleanliness and hygiene reasons (Bevan 54). Thereby it is necessary to contact the nearby humane societies to cull out information on local pet shelters (Bevan 54). It is useful to get oneÃ¢â¬â¢s home ready in case of an imminent hurricane. In case a house is already provided with hurricane shutters, it helps to look to it that one has extra screws and washers in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s possession. In case a home does not have access to precut plywood to bolster the windows, it helps to look into the storeroom to locate anything that could serve the purpose. It really helps to hurricane proof the home well in advance. In the case of an approaching hurricane, it happens to be quiet pragmatic for the families to prepare family communication plans (McGinnis 60). The family members may get separated after or before the storms start. In such a case the family members s hould recognize an out of state contact as a contact point for all the family members. It should be assured that all the family members know about this contact and have its phone number with them. It is helpful to keep the vehicles gassed up during the hurricane season. It is also pragmatic to check oneÃ¢â¬â¢s insurance coverage in advance because insurance companies stop extending coverage in case of an approa
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Integrated Human Resource management - Essay Example The growth towards centres of excellence has changed the system through which managers interrelate with HR experts who help them with all the core HR processes. Several businesses have outsourced HR work to large organisations, and line managers take help by means of a call centre system. Thus, from this issue, the changes of such occurrence can be explored. It also emphasised to examine the impact of the HR roles on HR professionals and line managers in the present organisation. It is required to find out the relationship between HR as well as line managers as their responsibilities have changed and has continued to evolve (Human Resource Management, 2010). The line managers in present organisational environment are gradually becoming responsible for performing human resource activities in order to develop, encourage and facilitate learning of the employees. A line manager is defined as a manager who is authorised to direct the work of subordinates and is responsible for accomplishi ng organisational goals. This paper examines the role of line manager in human resource development activities. In this paper, the current role of line manager in organisation and its great involvement in human resource development have been highlighted (Siugzdiniene, 2008). ... Before devolving HR responsibilities to the line managers it is required to provide training of practises and procedures of HR otherwise line managers will falter which results in inconsistent practices of HR. Thus, training should be provided to both local HR managers and the line managers in order to understand their HR responsibilities. HR manager may be unwilling to discard the familiarity of their traditional roles. Devolution may promote tension with line managers and the central personnel department. Though line managers are supportive of devolution, they are unwilling to take the responsibilities of people management due to the workload and their uncertainty in receiving sufficient training (Bach, 2000). The two distinct features of the present-day HRD approach are Ã¢â¬Ëthe devolution of HRD practices to line managersÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëthe integration of HRD with business strategyÃ¢â¬â¢, or the emergence of Strategic Human Resource Development (SHRD). The delegation of H RD policies and practices to line managers is one of the key enabling characteristics of the SHRD system. The basic assumption is that line managers can make the policies and procedures of HRD. These are designed in order to achieve the strategic objectives through identifying, developing and supporting the appropriate knowledge, skills, commitment and performance in employees of organisation. Line managers are able to identify the communication problems and knowledge gap. They act as a vital link between the learning process within the organisation and a channel through which knowledge is transferred. The managers have a power to block or support the implementation of HRD strategies. The power of line manager may not appear from any hierarchical
Friday, July 26, 2019
Report - Research Paper Example In discrete market segments the consumers have relatively little power and in a less discrete environment, the relationship leads to less consumer loyalty and greater consumer choice on account of greater mobility enjoyed by the consumers. Background The technological developments in telecommunications and media in the recent past have opened up new avenues for marketing of the products. The developments have also enhanced the awareness among the consumers about their rights, quality of the products, pricing pattern of the similar products, track record, servicing in respect of the products and host of other factors related to marketing. Therefore the changing business environment has necessitated revisiting of the strategies hitherto adopted by the companies in marketing of the products and services and streamlining their strategies in line with the developments in the industry for their survival. Upgrading of the products and processes is a continuous process keeping in tune with t he changes in technology and tastes and fashions of the consumers. Objectives This paper discusses consumer behavior with reference to an ongoing concern. An ongoing concern has to approach the issue from two angles, one in connection with the existing consumers and the other with the prospective consumers. Though there may be an element of overlapping, strategies vary for collection of information. The paper seeks to analyze the issues with regard to the existing and potential consumers. In the case of existing consumers, the information about them is already available with the company. The techniques such as Customer Relationship Management (CRM) would be useful for the management of these customers as well as the potential consumers. In the case of prospective customers, the information from the industry, community and other external sources will be required and the techniques such as market research would be useful for collecting information. In this connection a clear perspecti ve formed by the management with regard to Consumer psychology and Consumer behavior is essential. Consumer psychology ConsumerÃ psychologyÃ deals with the study of issues most relevant to the decisions taken by the people in purchasing a particular item, determining the value of a service and the influence of advertisements in the media in their decisions, especially when they are confronted with the new products or services, consequently interrelated to the consumer behavior. The entire gamut of consumer psychology encompasses marketing, advertising and social psychology apart from economics and cultural diversity or differences and extends to several other related areas such as product packaging as well. For example, Choi, Kwon & Lee (2007, p. 10) state that Ã¢â¬Å"mortality salience has an impact on materialistic consumption. People with a greater fear of becoming a terrorism victim showed a greater tendency for brand name consumption and compulsive consumptionÃ¢â¬ . This is an extension of the application of Terror Management Theory to consumer behavior. Likewise, the opportunities afforded are endless and includes new uses for the existing products which may give rise to new ideas in marketing a product. The economic and social background of the consumers and the psychological interplay in this backdrop is very crucial in the product placement and positioning, considering the target consumers,
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Ass 3 - Essay Example It cost the firm $180,500 to create the ad. A Mexican Company, Avocado also runs its commercials during Super Bowl events. Last year, the firm advertised a warm-weather fruit during the middle of winter. In a press release, the firm reported that it sold more than 70 million avocados in the United States. Avocado Mexico spends about $70,000 to create ads (OReilly & Lutz, 2015). McDonaldsÃ¢â¬â¢s that has recently undergone a huge marketing refresh bids to turn around its sales. The firm has created a one-minute spot in order to promote its new Ã¢â¬ËPay with Loving Promotion.Ã¢â¬â¢ It cost the firm $130,000 to create the ad. The company would be selecting participants for the Ã¢â¬ËPay with LovingÃ¢â¬â¢ at some of its stores. The firm aims at increasing its sales. To that effect, during the Super Bowl match pitting Seahawks and New England Patriots an estimated 110 million people watched the game (LeBeau, 2015). Therefore, the advertisers expected their products to be known to the more than 100 million people who were watching the match. An increase in product awareness may result in increased sales. However, the Super Bowl ads are only limited to American broadcasts. All the three firms: Avocado Mexico, Coca-Cola, and McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s created 60-second. The cost of creating a 30-minute advert is about $37,500 in Super Bowl and $4.5 million in Super Bowl XLIX. It implies that the cost of a one-minute commercial is between $76,000 and $9 million in Super Bowl and Super Bowl XLIX, respectively. Coca-Cola used $740,000, MacdonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s $240,000, and Avocado Mexico $100,000 (OReilly & Lutz, 2015). Considering the huge crowds that follow Super Bowl, most firms expect the huge viewership to translate into sales due to expanded customer base. In 2015, the gameÃ¢â¬â¢s viewership was at a record 114.4 million. The companies expect to recoup their costs from the resulting revenue. However, the
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Rewrite - Essay Example WEKA enables the one of two options such as pruned tree or not pruned tree as shown in the figure. Figure 1: Properties of the Decision tree in the WEKA (J48) In addition to above features, the WEKA also performs the test options for data use and data classification. Usage of the Training set: Evaluation of the classifier is based on the prediction of the instances of a class, which is trained on. Supplied Test: Evaluation of the classifier is also performed on the prediction of the instances of a class, which is loaded from the file. Cross Validation: By entering the number of fold into the text field of the Fold in the WEKA explorer the classifier is evaluated. Percentage Split: Data percentage is predicted by the evaluation of a classifier that takes the data out for the testing. The percentage field determines the specification of data held. During the training, data is used and provided the value of percentage field that makes the important part. Value of the reminder is reserve d for the testing purposes. By the default, value of percentage split is stated as the 66%. Data about 34% is used for testing and remaining 66% is trained. Figure 2: WEKA with testing options Decision tree performance is determined by examining the cross validation and percentage split in the provided medical dataset. Usage of Cross Validation for generation of decision tree: In order to control the factors such as trainingÃ¢â¬â¢s set size and confidence by the process of cross validation, the flexibility is found in the decision tree of J48. Confidence factor is used to minimise or reduce the error rate of the classification. It is said that confidence factor is used to settle the problem of tree pruning. In order to classify the instances in a more accurate way, the classifier is given an opportunity by increasing the confidence factor and removing the noise of the training. The value of the confidence factor is 95% used for the dataset and leads to an outstanding outcome of 89 .2% for the correct and classified instances and only 10.7% is the classified incorrectly as shown in the following figure. Figure 3: Use of cross validation based on the option J-48 decision tree to generate the results by WEKA. In the above figure, the calculation of J48 decision tree has been shown which includes correct values in details. Confusion Matrix is the important point in the given figure, which describes the ways in which a classifier makes an error in the prediction of a class type. According to Dunham (2003) the confusion matrix provides the correctness of the solution for the given classification problem. Another term used as an alternative to the confusion matrix is the contingency table. Two classes having a single dataset contain a column and two rows for the confusion matrix as shown in the figure 4. Predicted Actual Figure 4: Confusion Matrix Here FP represents the incorrectly classified number of negatives as positives and called as the commission errors. TP r epresents correctly classified number of positives. TN represents the correct classification of negative numbers, and FN shows the incorrect classification of positive numbers as negative. These are called as the omission errors. Predictive accuracy becomes the way for measuring the performance of a classifier. Predictive accuracy is known as the calculated success rate determined by the use of predictive accuracy as the confusion mat
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Indonesian Music and Korean Music - Case Study Example It is said to have originated in 16th century before the arrival or introduction of Islam in Indonesia, because of this, it is slightly modified, had change in new ways and absorbed new contexts (Harnish and Rasmsmusen). According to Harnish and Rasmussen, it is a large ensemble consisting of predominantly tuned, percussion instruments such as metallophones, hanging gongs and kettle gongs. It consists of two basic categories, pencon which are knobbed gong instruments and wilahan or slabbed key instruments (Spiller 60). It is composed of several gongs with different pitches based on the differences in thickness of surfaces, sizes, shapes and weights. It can be arranged vertically or suspended horizontally and struck with a use of a mallet. Slab key instruments compose of ten to fifteen rectangular metal bars arranged from left to right, from smallest to largest. The timbre of the metal bars depends on the softness or hardness of mallet use when playing the instrument. Gamelan Sekaten is a gamelan piece. It has a cyclical pattern and can be played repeatedly many times (Spiller 69-71). It is associated with the Muslim festival Garebeg Maulud, birth of the prophet Mohammed during Muslim holy week. No drastic changes have been done in gamelan sekaten because of its historical values. Javanese treats the instrument not as an ordinary instrument but a symbol associated with history, royal legitimacy and link to the past. No new pieces have been composed and the instruments have not been tuned ever since to preserve its originality, prevent distracting its venerability and diminishing symbolic potency (Spiller 70-72). Due to its status symbol and importance in history that can be traced many centuries ago, gamelan sekaten has. Banquet music is played to entertain. Korean banquet music is divided into three categories, the aak or Chinese ritual music, tangak, Koreanized Chinese ritual music and the hyangak or the Korean ritual music. According to Broughton et al. (p. 1 61) aak was the first to be introduced to Korea by Chinese in 1116 and has been modified and changed through the years. Contemporary aak originated from the reconstruction in 1430 with the use of written melodies dated back to twelfth century. Only two melodies have survived though the years and played only in Sacrifice to Confucius using Chinese originated ritual instruments. May states that (p.32) Tangak means music from the TÃ¢â¬â¢ang dynasty China, ak means Korean term for music. Tangak has only two orchestral pieces and hyangak pieces are originally created on fifteenth century to suit Korean royal ancestors. To this day hyangak pieces still exist that is still closely related to fifteenth century notations. Its purpose was to entertain the royal ruling class in informal form and subdivided into two, the chong-ak and sog-ak. Chong-ak is for the royal ruling class while sog-ak is for ordinary people. Court music includes ritual, banquet and military music. It consists of voice , musical and instrumental components. It usually starts in a slow pace and progresses into a cheerful dance pace until the end. Court music should be approved and accepted by the ruling class. In addition, the circumstance of its performance should also then be approved
Liquid Based Cytology are they fail safe Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words
Liquid Based Cytology are they fail safe - Essay Example Infact, every nurse-patient encounter is unique and many nursing problems have no fixed solutions. Reflection is a very important and core part of nursing training and education. The current trends and advancements in the profession of nursing have forced the profession to look for effective measure of effective practice, the most important of which is reflective activity. Advances in the 21st century are seeing many new developments in the field of healthcare forcing the nursing faculty to reinforce effective and appropriate education. This becomes of primary importance by virtue of the nature of the profession nursing is. As such, the primary goal of nursing is to provide quality health care to patients. High standards of competence can be maintained by the nurses through appropriate evaluation and examinations of one's own activities and performance, through clinical reflection. Reflection is the process by which a person evaluates and examines one's own thoughts and actions. Refl ective practice is very essential for nursing clinical practice because it helps the nurse to understand, assess and learn through the experiences during clinical practice (Burns and Grove, 2005). ... Reflection using Gibb's model of reflection The frameworks make the process of reflection easy. There are many frameworks. Gibbs model is a reflective cycle which is a straight forward and recognized framework for reflection wherein it enables clear description of the situation of the patient, the analysis of feelings, evaluation of the experience, analysis to make sense of the experience, conclusion where other points are considered and reflection upon experience to examine what you would do if situation arose again. Description of the situation involves recollection of the condition of the patient, the signs and symptoms, and the initial evaluation parameters when the patient got admitted. Analysis of feelings involves evaluation of the feelings of the nurse towards the patient and also the feelings of the patient during the course of treatment. Evaluation of experience involves evaluation of the negative and positive actions of the nurse at that particular situation. Analysis invo lves evaluation of the impact of the actions of oneself on the condition of the patient, whether the actions cause improvement or deterioration of the condition of the patient. Description 40 year old Lucy (Name changed due to confidentiality reasons according to NMC code) was referred for cervical cancer screening. Lucy apparently had no health problems. She was mother of 3 children. She was accompanied by her husband. Lucy was apprehensive and nervous about the procedure. She had many doubts regarding the test. She asked me whether the test had any side effects, what were the benefits of the test, whether the test was fail safe and as to what would be the next step in case
Monday, July 22, 2019
Strategic planning Essay Strategic planning refers to a course of action for outlining organizational objectives, carrying out planning to achieve those objectives, and measuring the usefulness of those strategies (Kovner Knickman, 2011). How will the organizational performance at Montefiore be measured? Performance measures are important for it improves communication internally among their employees and externally between the organization, customers, and stakeholders. After all, Montefiore effective communication for their strategic planning activities is explained in their mission statement, which is to heal, to teach, to discover, and to advance the health of the community that they serve (Kovner Knickman, 2011). Montefiore organizational performance should be measured to justify programs and their costs that should include a measure of supply and demand. For instance, patient appointments, which supply is the total of clinician hours and non-appointments (refills and messages) and for demands, the total number of request for appointments received on any given day from both internal and external sources. Montefiore organizational performance should be measured by showing accountability of stewardship of the tax payerÃ¢â¬â¢s dollars to show that they are addressing the needs of the society by making progress towards goals (Kovner Knickman, 2011). The vision is that all organizations within the department have performance measurement systems to reinforce their planning and evaluation activities (Kovner Knickman, 2011). Planning and evaluating activities is the responsibility of every individual within that department working together to develop valid and useful measures. Why donÃ¢â¬â¢t all HCOs have strategic goals like MontefioreÃ¢â¬â¢s? Unfortunately, not all health care organizations agree with strategic planning. Questions about its importance and successfulness have continued. The reason for this is that after decades of research the outcome of strategic planning on an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance is still not clear. Significant benefits from planning have been found in some studies while others have found no connection and some unfavorable outcomes (Kovner Knickman, 2011). What contributions should the management team make? Management teams contribute to clarifying common goals and purposes of theÃ organization to their employees. All employees contribute to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s success. Organizing people, dollars, services, equipment to accomplish the work required by the employees is another contributing factor the management teams plays a role in (Kovner Knickman, 2011). Above all, management team contributions are about teamwork, collaboration and being responsible of resources entrusted to them. References Kovner, A. R., Knickman, J. R. (2011). Jonas Kovners Health Care Delivery in the United States (10th ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics: Coffee Filter Machine Background/IntroductionIn this assignment they are tasked to explain how an electric coffee filter machine works and its scientific process. they are also tasked to calculate the amount of power it uses and energy it needs to keep that coffee warm and its efficiency when its keeping it warm, which is important because if the coffee isnt very efficient and uses a lot of energy or a lot of heat can escape then it could lead to high energy prices just to keep coffee warm. Once the efficiency has been calculated they also need to find out how it can be improved further, they are required to at least focus on one element to improve its efficiency. This coffee machine works by holding the water you put in it in a reservoir, that water then goes down a hole in the reservoir and into an orange tube. This tube is used to carry the cold/room temperature water to the aluminium tubing which conducts the heat from the heating element through the warming plate which consists of a heat conductive grease that helps heat the water up. The heating element does this when its coiled wire heats up as electricity runs through it. This heating element has two purposes, one of which is initially heating the water up and its second purpose comes in a later process. The aluminium tube is connected to the white tube which carries that hot water up to the shower head. This white tube doesnt consist of a pump to carry the water up, instead the bubbles from the boiling water rise in the tube and carry the water up to the shower head and the machines one way valve allows the water to go up the tube without coming back down and into the reservoir. Once the hot water reaches the shower head, it gets evenly sprayed on to the coffee grounds, picks up the caffeol and gets poured into the coffee pot. Once the coffee has been brewed the second purpose of the heating element is keeping the coffee warm which has many advantages one of which is to keep it warm for other people in the house after you brewed your own.Ã  These coffee machines are very reliable but there is always a possibility of failure, although a few have easy fixes. One way the coffee machine can fail is when the switch or even its power cord stop working which can be repaired by a professional although can sometimes be expensive so it would be more cost effective to buy a new machine. Another way is that the one-way valve can get clogged up letting the water back down the tube or simply not letting the water through at all. An easy fix for this is by simply scooping out any debris with a small object such as a toothpick. The tubes can also get clogged up. A way to fix this would be by running a cycle with vinegar and then running 2 cycles of clean water to rid of any vinegar left in the machine. Fig 1.  Experiment AnalysisTo collect their results, they had to weigh a few things. They weighed the jug when it was empty, the jug when it was full and calculated how much the water weighed. They did their experiment by letting the coffee machine heat the water up until its finished, they then took the jug filled with hot water and measured the temperature change every 2 minutes. Here are their results for 12 cups: They decided to take the jug out of the coffee machine when measuring their results because then when they are to calculate the energy needed to keep the coffee warm, they minimise the chances of under calculating as the coffee machine only partially covers the jug so not as much heat would escape, taking the jug out allows us to check the maximum amount of heat that can escape over certain intervals. They see that the water started off at 83 degrees Celsius and went down to 66.8 degrees Celsius with the temperature changing roughly between 1-1.4 degrees Celsius every 2 minutes. For the experiment they used a scale for weighing the empty jug and the jug when it was filled with water. They also used an electronic thermometer to accurately measure water temperatures. A coffee machine was also used as the experiment couldnt be done without it to heat the water up. For 10, 8, 6 and 4 cups the method the exact same although less water was used, here are the results: 10 Cups Results: As you can see in the 10 cps results, there is a dramatic change in temperature in the first 2 minutes in comparison to the 12 cups results. 8 Cups Results: 6 Cups Results: 4 Cups Results: They can use the results from this experiment to calculate heat loss and the rate of heat loss. To calculate the heat loss (Q Units: -Joules) they take the mass of the water and multiply it by the specific heat capacity and then multiply it by the change in temperature (Q= m*Cp*Ãâ Ã¢â¬ T). Then they did the rate of the heat loss ( units: ) which is mass of the water multiplied by the specific and then multiply it by the change of temperature and then divide it by the change of time ( = m*Cp*) Below are the calculations for each of the experiments: Amount of Water Heat Loss (Q) Rate of Heat Loss () 12 Cups 124563.25 J 69.20 10 Cups 136682.90 J 63.38 8 Cups 89264.75 J 49.59 6 Cups 89145.42 J 49.53 4 Cups 71119.88 J 39.51 Amount of Water Mass of Water 12 Cups 1.75 kg 10 Cups 1.46 kg 8 Cups 1.17 kg 6 Cups 0.91 kg 4 Cups 0.65 kg Costs: In the UK it currently costs 0.01174 pence per Watt per hour. To find how much it costs per second they have to divide that number by 3600. 0.01174/3600 = 3.261111111 x Js-1 To calculate how much it costs to keep the coffee hot they use their new cost per Watt per second and multiply it by the rate of heat loss () and then multiply it by 3600 to get the cost per hour to keep the coffee hot. Amount of Water Cost (Pence per Wh) 12 Cups 69.20 0.8124048 10 Cups 63.38 0.7440812 8 Cups 49.59 0.5821866 6 Cups 49.53 0.5814822 4 Cups 39.51 0.4638474 DiscussionBecause the coffee machine is an open and transient system, the coffee jug and reservoir is constantly losing heat the coffee machine needs to have good thermal insulation to prevent heat from escaping. One improvement that couldve been made to the results is use the equation for thermal resistance to calculate the rate of heat loss. By calculating the thermal resistance of the glass jug we can calculate how much heat escapes from it more accurately. The thermodynamics heat processes are conduction, convection and radiation. Mentioned in the background is how the heating element heats up the water through the warming plate, this happens by the process of conduction which is moving heat from a warm location to a cold location, the heat plate and from the heat plate to the aluminium tubing which heats the water up. In the analysis results, specifically for the 10 Cups, there was an anomaly in the first bit of data, the difference in temperature was very high in comparison to the others and this was due to human error. In the first 2 minutes the stopwatch mightve not been started at the correct time or there mightve been a problem when the temperature was being measured. One improvement that couldve been made to the coffee machine to increase its efficiency could be to redesign the coffee jug and manufacture it out of insulated metal to decrease heat loss but with a piece of glass down the middle of it so that you can still see how much coffee is left in the jug, doing this will ensure that less heat escapes the coffee jug, having a big impact on the cost to keep the coffee warm. References: Ã Brain, M., Toothman, J. (2006, November 29). How coffee makers work. Retrieved February 2, 2017, from http://home.howstuffworks.com/coffee-maker.html Ã Retrieved February 2, 2017, from http://s.hswstatic.com/gif/coffee-maker-17.jpg https://www.ukpower.co.uk/home_energy/tariffs-per-unit-kwh An early cam was built into Hellenistic water-driven automata from the 3rd century BC. The camshaft was later described in Turkey (DiyarbakÃâÃ ±r) by Al-Jazari in 1206. He employed it as part of his automata, water-raising machines, and water clocks such as the castle clock. The cam and camshaft later appeared in European mechanism
Saturday, July 20, 2019
The Conflict Management Styles Developed Psychology Essay In this diagram developed by Thomas and Kilmann , the forcing/competing style is high in concern for self or simultaneously describes as high in assertiveness, which is epitomized to satisfy his personal needs under all circumstances even at the expense of others. This style is in contrast to the collaborating style, which is interested in long term and long lasting relationship and looks for solutions to meet the needs of all parties involved. The avoiding style is low in concern for self and is escapism to conflict. This style normally occurs when a party is neither interested in his own goals nor interested in maintaining relationship; he simply withdraws and does not want to deal with the conflict. The accommodating style deals with sacrificing of self-interests to satisfy the needs of others to resolve the conflict. Finally, compromising is the midpoint and struggles between cooperativeness(concern for others) and assertiveness (concern for self), and involves making concessions for both parties to arrive at a resolution of conflict. This where both parties are ready to listen to each other and willing to climb down from their expectation and sacrifice to achieve peace. However compared to Thomas and Kilmann model, Putnam and Wilsons (1982) divide the conflict management style model into three factors namely the non-confrontation (obliging), solution-oriented (integrating) and control (dominating). Putnam and Wilson (1982) state that non-confrontation or obliging strategies manage conflict indirectly, by simply avoiding disagreements or by minimizing controversial issues. Solution-oriented or integrating strategies manage conflict both by searching for cooperation, integrative solutions and by making compromises. Control, or dominating, strategies manage conflict by arguing persistently for their positions and using nonverbal messages to emphasize demands. Furthermore numerous researchers proposed revisions of the preceding frameworks, likewise Rahim and Bonomas (1979) conceptualization has been one of the most popular, with empirical evidence (e.g., Rahim Magner, 1995; van de Vilert Kabanoff, 1990) suggesting it to be most valid. Rahim and Bonoma (1979) differentiated the styles of resolving interpersonal conflict on two basic dimensions: concern for self and concern for others. The first dimension explains the degree (high or low) to which a person attempts to satisfy their own concerns, while the second dimension explains the degree to which an individual tries to satisfy the needs or concerns of others. And the combination of these two dimensions, results in five specific styles of conflict management, known as integrating, obliging, dominating, avoiding and compromising. Some researchers like (Blake Mouton, 1964; Likert Likert, 1976) have also criticized and suggested that successful conflict management needs specific styles to resolve conflict situations; for example, that the integrative or problem-solving style is most appropriate for managing all conflict. Other researchers such as (Rahim Bonoma, 1979; Thomas, 1992) have indicated that for conflicts to be managed most effectively, one style is more appropriate than the other, based on the kind of situation. According to Gross and Guerrero (2000), the effectiveness of individuals is perceived based on which conflict management styles they choose to incorporate. They discovered that an integrative conflict management style is generally perceived as the most appropriate (in terms of being both a polite, prosocial strategy, and an adaptive, situational appropriate strategy) and most effective style. The dominating style is perceived as inappropriate, and the obliging style as neutral. The avoiding style was generally perceived as both ineffective and inappropriate. Finally, compromising was perceived as a relatively neutral style. Authors high concern for self low c concern for others intermediate concern of both self and others high concern for self high c concern for others low concern for self low c concern for others low concern for self high concern for others Follet (1940) Domination Compromise Integration Avoidance Suppression Blake and Mouton (1964) Forcing Compromising Problem-Solving Withdrawing Smoothing Thomas and Kilmann (1974) Competing Compromising Collaborating Avoiding Accommodating Rahim and Bonoma (1979) Dominating Compromising Integrating Avoiding Obliging Putnam and Wilson (1982) Control _ Solution-oriented Non-confrontation _ Figure 2: shows an overview of the different conflict management styles developed by various authors. 2.3.1 Characteristics of Conflict Management styles Although there has been a plethora of research which has been conducted to drive the essence of the conflict management styles, it was observed that many of the derived styles have specific attributes or characteristics that set them apart to deal with a particular group of people or individuals posited more precisely by their behavioral conflict strategies (Follet 1940). They are all different by virtue and respond differently to specific situation. In this study we are going to scrutinize first and foremost the characteristics of each conflict management styles and formulate on what basis the choice of peoples conflict management styles is influenced. This research follows Thomas and Kilmann (1974) model, which is organized around two dimensions cooperativeness and assertiveness. Combinations of these dimensions lead to five modes of handling conflict: Avoiding style Be it an avoiding style, withdrawing, or non-confrontation, this style is characterized with low concern for self (assertiveness )and low concern (cooperativeness) for to others, in other words this style wants to emphasize that it is neither assertive nor cooperative and usually stay away from issues which are linked to a conflict. This style makes us believe that conflict is difficult to break and the best way is to withdraw physically or psychologically for a conflict rather than facing it. De Dreu, (1997), Hocker Wilmot, (1998) advocate that avoiding is most often associated with negative substantive outcomes and that issues which consider this style are not resolved ,and usually become more serious over time especially in case where there are strong relationships between parties strongly tied through feelings, emotions and actions. Besides Gross and Guerrero (2000) is perceived to be of similar view as (De Dreu, 1997; Hocker Wilmot, 1998). Gross and Guerrero (2000) relate the avoiding conflict style as being situationally and relationally inappropriate, as well as ineffective, when it comes to achieving personal and dyadic outcomes. Hence many of these authors argue that avoiding can be effective in the short run, but perceived of having negative effects in the long run. In this regard if we consider avoiding in the short term, it can be concluded that it is the most dominating style compared to other styles. In combination with other conflict behaviors such as comp eting, avoiding certain issues can undoubtedly contribute to effectiveness. For example if we temporarily leave the conflict to cool down and reconsider our previous position before the conflict aroused, therefore avoiding can contribute to effectiveness (Van de Vliert 1997). In this style people who are willing to give up both personal goals and relationships withdraw from the conflict. When the question of adopting the avoiding style is raised to a group, members will avoid the actual conflict and become outside observers. By listening to the input on an observation basis, the group can gain invaluable feedback on emergent points of discussion, as well as team members behaviours can hamper resolution. Competing style The competing style whether we call it forcing, dominating or control is epitomized by high concern for self (assertive) and low concern (cooperative) for others. The main characteristics of the competing style is that it usually keep track with personal goals, always ready to win and they assume conflicts are usually a win/lose game and winning gives them a sense of pride and achievement. Based on the assumptions made by Van de Vliert, (1997) it is most likely that the competing style is the result of a negative relationship between conflicting parties. In this sense people that adopt this style can bring progress to a group that lacks direction or is landed in a debate. Similarly Sorenson, Morse, Savage, (1999) agree with the view of Van de Vliert, (1997) and advocate that competing will usually not improve a relationship. Although it was found in some studies, individuals can achieve important outcomes or results through forcing behavior De Dreu Van de Vliert, (1997); Rahim, (1992); Thomas, (1992), other research have suggested that the quality of the results substantially decreases with increased forcing behavior (Van de Vliert et al., 1995). Furthermore Gross and Guerrero (2000) argue that dominating behavior is relationally inappropriate and there is little chance for it to be effective. We therefore conclude that the effect of dominating behavior on real outco mes is very lean and will cause the breakdown of social relationship. Accommodating style The accommodating style also known as the obliging, smoothing, suppression shows low concern for self (assertiveness) and high concern (cooperativeness) for others. The characteristics posed by this style is mainly associated with those people who want to be accepted and liked by others, and in this position they think that conflict should be avoided and maintaining the harmony that exist between parties is of prior importance. With the accommodating style it is very important put aside personal grudge or goals and look for a common ground of understanding where we are bound to satisfy firstly the other parties expectation. They also think that we cannot deal with a conflict without damaging a relationship. According to (Van de Vliert et al., 1995) the accommodating style means giving in to others parties wishes and does not have specific contribution to the level of effectiveness. This style is not likely to produce important outcomes, as it matters that the quality of decision making decreases with an increase in the accommodating behavior by one or by both parties (Mastenbroek, 1989; Papa Canary, 1995). However some authors suggest that the accommodating style contributes mostly to the interpersonal relationship (Papa Canary, 1995; Rahim, 1992). While Gross and Guerrero (2000) emphasiesed that accommodating is perceived as being neither relational nor situationally appropriate, nor effective and conclude that this behavioural style is more likely to be favorable. Collaborating style The collaborating style named by various model as being an integrative style, solution oriented, problem solving drive particular attention to high concern for self (assertiveness) and high concern (cooperativeness) for others. Its main characteristics is that it takes too long trying to find consensus and it is usually not satisfied until it finds a solution that achieve the goals and resolves any negative feelings and can as well irritate others as a result of their behaviors when they are on the verge to seek for perfection in a consensus. (Van de Vliert et al 1995) argue that this style places high value on relationships and goals which are both assertive and cooperative. Parties adopting this style are likely to collaborate to accomplish their objectives. They view conflict as problems to be solved and as a way to improve relationships with each other. This style is termed as having a positive effect on the end result of a conflict management style while having negative effect on relational outcomes. Authors like (Fisher, 1997; Turner Pratkanis, 1997) suggest that the collaborating style is used to define and analyze conflict issues. In contrast, (Euwema, 1992; Van de Vliert, et al., 1995) state that collaborating behavior eventually make complex interpersonal relation at stake and make negative contribution to the end result. Hence (Euwema, 1992) declared that when interpersonal relations are at risk people will undoubtedly hesitate to confront others. Compromising style The compromising style is based on intermediate concern for both the self (assertiveness) and others (cooperativeness). One of its characteristics is that it is a flexible and adaptive style, and goes for splitting the difference between parties, exchanging grounds of understanding. People who consider this style place medium value on goals and relationships and believe firmly on a compromise basis. They spend long time for looking for solution but not yearning for perfection. The compromising style satisfy only some of the parties needs and some authors like (De Dreu, Evers, Beersma, KIuwer, Nauta, 2001; Van de Vliert, 1997) delineate compromising as half hearted problem solving.Pruitt and Carnevale (1993) argue that a compromise is associated with a strong conciliatory tendency, coupled with moderate concern for self. (Gross Guerrero, 2000) advocate that compromising was found to operate highly on relational appropriateness and less effective to situational level. Unlike the various conflict management styles developed by researchers to resolve team conflict, it is often contented that a matter will be resolved easily if the right conflict management style is applied to. Likewise the selection of the proper conflict management style is not shaped by the choice of will by the parties involved but rather on various external factors that come to influence the choice of the conflict resolution style. These factors are mainly related to the culture (language and thinking patterns) of group members, their gender, emotions and their age group.
Love and Gender in Twelfth Night Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Shakespeare's Twelfth Night examines patterns of love and courtship through a twisting of gender roles. In Act 3, scene 1, Olivia displays the confusion created for both characters and audience as she takes on the traditionally male role of wooer in an attempt to win the disguised Viola, or Cesario. Olivia praises Cesario's beauty and then addresses him with the belief that his "scorn" (3.1.134) only reveals his hidden love. However, Olivia's mistaken interpretation of Cesario's manner is only the surface problem presented by her speech. The reality of Cesario's gender, the active role Olivia takes in pursuing him/her, and the duality of word meanings in this passage threaten to turn the traditional patriarchal concept of courtship upside down, or as Olivia says turn "night to noon" (139). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Perhaps the biggest upset to the traditional structure is the possibility that Olivia may be in love with a woman. Shakespeare allows his audience to excuse this by having Olivia be unaware that Cesario is actually female. Yet, Olivia's attraction seems to stem exactly from the more feminine characteristics like Cesario's "beautiful scorn" and "angry lip" (136-137). Olivia's words allow an audience, particularly a modern one, to perhaps read her as suspecting or even knowing that Cesario is female, yet choosing to love him/her anyway. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Olivia's description of Cesario's beauty, both here and upon their first encounter, praises typically feminine qualities, but curiously doesn't question Cesario's gender. The comparison of love to guilt tempts the readers mind to wonder if Olivia is guilty about her love for such female attributes. Olivia's oath on maidenhood ... ...ess Ltd, 1972. 222-43. Burton, Robert. The Anatomy of Melancholy. Ed. Floyd Dell, New York: Tudor Publishing Company, 1927. David, R. W., ed. The Arden Shakespeare: Love's Labour's Lost. London: Methuen, 1951. Dusinberre, Juliet. Shakespeare and the Nature of Women. London: Macmillan Press Ltd, 1975. Erasmus, Desiderius. In Praise of Folly. Trans. Hoyt Hopewell Hudson, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1970. Hotson, Leslie. Shakespeare's Motley. New York: Oxford University Press, 1952. Potter, Lois. Twelfth Night: Text & Performance. London: Macmillan, 1985. Shakespeare, William. The Norton Shakespeare. Edited Stephen Greenblatt et al. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1997. Zijderveld, Anton J. Reality in a Looking-Glass: Rationality through an Analysis of Traditional Folly. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982. Ã
Friday, July 19, 2019
Borders are concepts which encompass and exclude. They exist everywhere. Some are literal visible physical lines whereas others go beyond sight and exist in terms of characteristics such as monetary wealth, or even humanity. Over time these boundaries are redefined and in turn change the flow of daily life for the individuals they effect. In many cases it is the powerful governments which are in control of the pen which outline these symbolic and physical lines. However as history can prove even though it is these powerful governments which give definition to these borders, it is very often them (the governmental officials) who are the ones who cross them. This hypocritical characteristic is blatantly apparent in regards to Central America. Both the ruling elite and the United States government has infringed upon the many levels of borders which exist in this part of the world. Numerous atrocities have been committed, thousands of lives have been shattered, countless victims have suffered all due to lack of respect for the borders which exist. All levels have been touched; political, economic, and even human. No outline is safe from being infringed upon or even shattered in Central America. While many of us may point fingers it is indeed our very own United States government which has not respected the political borders present in this part of the world. We have stepped into territory in this area that we have no business being involved with. Under our governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s supervision, the CIA carried out a coup in Guatemala in which it installed a self-perpetuation pro-American gang of military criminals who have held power for almost forty years. Their reproductive mechanism has been murder of hundreds of thousands of Guatemalams. After this unnecessary interaction of the CIA, US national security planners saw "Cuba as a highly inflammable element which unchecked, could spread communism - now interchangeable with revolution" (Landau 30). In response to this President Eisenhower ordered the CIA to repeat its Ã¢â¬ËsuccessÃ¢â¬â¢ in Guatemala. "Throughout the continent, US police and military advisers worked with torturers, murderers and Fascists to repress not only revolution, but all forms of democracy" (Landau 31). Our government officials have such extreme fears of the uprising of the poor in these nations that it did not care out of place it was to get involved. Their economic investments and trade guided our foreign relations. They would enter and cross the borders of this seemingly innocent third world section of the continent and intervene regardless of the fact that they did not belong there in the sense that it is not thier country and should not be involved.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Assessment for learning focuses on the learning process and how to improve a childÃ¢â¬â¢s academic progression, finding out where pupils are within a learning range, where they need to go and how best to get there. A variety of assessment for learning strategies can be used to aide children in their learning and these can be adopted by teachers to gain an understanding of what has been achieved and what next steps will be required to take a childÃ¢â¬â¢s learning forward. Typical characteristics of assessment for learning are; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Enable teachers to plan the next stages in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s learning to ensure individual progress. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Provide a consistent whole school approach that encourages teaching and learning. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To make sure that pupils are actively involved in lessons from the very start. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Helping pupils understand and know the standard of work that they are aiming for in class by asking questions of themselves i.e. Ã¢â¬Å"what have I learnt?Ã¢â¬ ~ Ã¢â¬Å"what could I have done to improve on that piece of work?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Providing constructive feedback that will help pupils identify improvement and by also educating pupils in self assessment methods in order to ascertain areas for development . Ã¢â¬ ¢ In order for teachers and pupils to play an important role in facilitating learning experiences then there must be an element of active listening from both child and teacher. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Have faith that every child can progress in contrast to earlier achievements they had made. Ã¢â¬ ¢ By recognising that enthusiasm and self esteem which is vital for effective learning and progress will be increased by using effective assessment methods. Ã¢â¬ ¢ In order for pupils to understand where they are in their learning they should be encouraged to think, ask question and work together in groups as this will allow them to evaluate their own understanding. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pupils should be encouraged to connect their learning to other lessons, topics or life outside of school.
fountain away IPROJECT OBJECTIVES AND OVERALL forefront APPROACH 1. 0. 0 INTRODUCTION blood and m peerless(prenominal)tary doing in the touring carry manucircumstanceure touristry is now adept of the king-sizest industries in the world. According to the WTO, the export income gene ar twined by international touristry ranks fourth later enkindles, chemicals, and automotive products. Furtherto a greater extent, the WTO level offs expose that, for m whatever exploitation countries, touristry is whiz of the principal(prenominal) income sources of singular trans site, and creates much- penuryed use upment and opportwholeies for scotchal go upment. The labor has alike enjoyed staggering growth over the out spillage six decades. ttp//www. qfinance. com The touristry patience is excessively a study contributor to Zimbabwes frugality hence I chose to t thread the executing of a c whollyer-out in this sector to obtain a decipherable conceive of of ho w the slaying of a major musician in much(prenominal)(prenominal) a sector would contribute to the scotch system. In the touristry intentness assembly line and mo enlightenary achievement is highly dep mop upent on the semi governmental occurrenceors of the host agricultural. Political st king and faithful international traffic argon burning(prenominal) for the growth of firms in the touristry manufacturing as tourists tho go to places where they opinion safe and protected.Sp resting on tourism and hotels is as good closely related to the sparingal cycle. Certainly, sp depoting on lei real activities much(prenominal) as holi long magazine tends to be one of the add 1 things that consumers ablation back in measure of economic hardship. REASONS FOR CHOOSING RTG 1. 2. 1 Rainbow Tourism multitudeing Background Rainbow Tourism Group was naturalised in 1992, and is the indorsement largest tourism host in Zimbabwe and a major player in Zimbabwes Tourism Industry. Listed on the Zimbabwe Stock exchange, the fel baseship has spread its go into the regional marts by means of management contractsand st setgical Alliances. In Zimbabwe, RTG ope rovesfour specks namely, The Rainbow Towers, Rainbow Hotels(three star city and resort hotels), Touch the wild (top of the avow eco-tourism lodges offering unique safari experiences) and Zimbabwe Tourism Services (a destination management go comp all that caters for travel arrangements). (www. rtg. co. zw) RTG has a straightforward corpo station governance social organisation and is the second largest tourism theme in Zimbabwe the largest cosmos Afri brush aside solariselight RTGs operate(a) milieuFor the power point 2007 to 2009 Zimbabwes seam environs was extremely hostile, or so handicraftes were closing drink down and the close to lucky survivors were scaling down their job ope symmetryns massively. The economy was ranked the worst in the world and lump at its distr ibutor point was around 6. 5 quindecillionnovemdecillion pct (65 fol humbleed by 107 zeros) . Long term planning was infeasible in the industry collectible to the political instability and tough promotion that the dry land received fol commencementing violence environ the March 2008 presidential elections as wellspring as cholera outbreaks affected tourist ar disturbs in 2008, thereby limiting any growth in the economy.The highest change magnitude in the number of tourist arrivals was account from tralatitious source markets, such as the UK and the US. Http. //www. euromonitor. com/Zimbabwe The managed exchange vagabond and high pompousness evaluate make budgeting hard. The introduction of impairment guarantees by the government in the sector meant that RTG could non affix their termss in line with puffiness as they were supposed to request for price increases first whereas their expenses were increasing hence acrimonious down their earns unreasonably.The ramp ant dearth of basic commodities such as viands and drinks increase costs as add up could non match demand it to a fault meant that hotels and restaurants could non offer dish outs to its guests and thereof a drop in r regular(a)ues and standards of operate. A high unemployment rate of about 94% and a shrinking economy overly meant that the local customers had no disposable income as 98% of the population was living chthonian the poverty datum line and had to cut back on leisure activities.The tourism sector overly ca use upd a crumbling air transport sector, with ramifications for the entire economy and the withdrawal of a number of honored airlines, citing viability lines. Approximately 18 international airlines argon describe to sustain left the land since the start of the economic crisis in the stratum 2000. few of the airlines that pulled out of the Zimbabwe route were Zambian Airways, British Airways, Swissair, Lufthansa, KLM and Air France. naughty fuel prices, combined with political and economic turbulence, were the reasons cited for the withdrawals.Zimbabwes isolation was a major devastate to the already ailing travel and tourism industry, which relies heavily on high-spending incoming tourists. (www. new-fashionedlyzimbabwe. com) settle and impersonals of the enquiry The objective of this enquiry is to name out how RTGs trading and monetary cognitive ope proportionalityn over the three stratum goal 2007 to 2009 contributed to Zimbabwes economy when it was in a massive economic fadeout and when foreign nones and jobs were needed nigh.RTG is a major player in the tourism sector which contributes a significant accord to the GDP of Zimbabwe thereof RTGs work and financial cognitive ope balancen was not only important to its sh atomic number 18holders but besides to the integral economy. To achieve this objective the tec entrust to a fault try the following * To test how RTG measures and taskes its executi ng. * To find out what strategies RTG adopted to pair its course sector and financial make objectives. * To assess whether RTGs business and financial mental process was adequate to pass away the economic crisis it was confront. The inquiry aims to answer the following questions What measures were apply by RTG to assess the business and financial consummation and were they adequate? * What were the strategies RTG utilise to achieve its business and financial objectives and were they adequate? * How did RTG perform essayd to its primary(prenominal) competitors? * How did RTGs business and financial mathematical process contribute to the economy of Zimbabwe? * Did RTG meet the expectations of any its stakeholders? * How can RTG amend its mathematical ope balancen? explore approach The research worker employ a case study approach employing some(prenominal) qualitative and quantitative techniques to evaluate the death penalty of RTG.This approach enabled the in vestigator to make a equilibrize sound judgement and to consider opposite stakeholders participations that business leader be tough to measure quantitatively. To answer the high(prenominal) up questions the tec altogetherow for use tralatitious techniques such asratio summary and trend compend to raise the patterns of performance while similes with some other judicatures in the same industry bequeath excessively be done. Modern techniques such as Kaplan and Nortons balance visiting card go forth excessively be used in articulate to develop a all-inclusive exemplar of assessing the business and financial performance of RTG.Gaps will be identified, conclusions drawn and recommendations will be made as to how RTG can improve its business and financial performance in upcoming. PART IIINFORMATION GATHERING AND account / BUSINESS TECHNIQUES Introduction Description of methods This branch identifies the research methodologies which will be used for selective i nformation gathering by the tec. research methodology refers to a whole range of questions about the assumed, appropriate ways of overtaking about neighborly research and is wherefore a theory or an psychodepth psychology of how research should operate (hitchcock and hughes 199520).Data accumulation procedures Data line of battle is about use the selected methods of investigation which Robson (1997304) believes there is no to a greater extent often than not beaver methods as all methods buzz off their weaknesses. Various methods of selective information collection were used in this research and the following argon the special and vicarious data collection methods that were used. Primary methods * Interviews * Observation Secondary methods * books * journals and publications * meshing * Published financial natures Secondary data Secondary data atomic number 18 statistics not garner for the immediate study at hand but some other purpose. Churchill 2002). Secondary dat a was used in this research to get an in-depth understanding of the business and financial performance of RTG. Saunders (2007) gave the following advantages and disadvantages of secondary data military issuess * Saves fourth dimension and bills * High quality of information comp ard to data gathered by an individual at the point of research * Provides a general fashion model for comparing data sedate by the individual. Disadvantages * Accessibility of data whitethornbe costly or fractious * The purpose why the secondary data was collected whitethorn not be relevant to the research creation underinterpreted. There is no control over the quality of secondary data therefore accuracy perchance operose to verify * Information gathered whitethornbe out erad Primary data Advantage * The most important benefit of first-string data is that data is original. Disadvantages * Results may not be representative of what is found in the population * The flexible nature of methods used c an extend in enigmatical results Research instruments Interviews An interview is a social survey conducted in a nerve to face or personal conduct situation.Heyward and Sparks (1984) specialise an interview as an occasion when one or two people ask questions that fitk to find out opinions and ideas. Advantages of interviews boldness to face * Immediate feedback * Quick feedback * delicate to tell whether respondent understood the questions, * bodily gestures and personal contact adds emphasis * allows for a wide exchange of ideas * Good relations argon established E-mails and Telephones * Immediate feedback * entrance for always busy interviewees * E-mails can be easily stored for other uses Disadvantages of interviews Face to face * Data is challenging to record, code and give out * m consuming interviewee accessibility may be difficult * The interviewee maybe disobliging E-mails and Telephones * late feedback caused by disruptions imputable to lucre congestion and tec hnical breakdowns * High earpiece charges Literature review 1. 1. 11. 1. 1 pecuniary performance Financial performance is a subjective measure of how well a firm can use additions from its primary mode of business and generate revenues. It measures a firms overall financial health over a inclined(p) tip of time and/or compare with similar firms across the same industry www. investopedia. com/terms/f/financialperformance. asp 1. 1. 2 Business PerformanceBusiness performance can be defined as the integration of financial and non-financial systems and processes to achieve cheek goals and objectives http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/business_performance_management Business performance is about creating foster for the stakeholders of a business. Measuring business performance is therefore rattling subjective and conclusion sui elude measures is in truth difficult. An organizations business and financial performance cannot be measured in isolation it has to be compared with anteced ent periods or other organizations in the same economic sector victorious into consideration the attach tos business environment.Business performance is guided by an organizations vision and legation these outline the aims to be achieved and the desired end results. Research Approach The research worker will use a variety of business and financial performance measures. Firstly the detective will consider traditional financial performance measures such as return on roof employed, liquidness pitch forefingers, earning per share and trend analysis which shows the determine added to the shareholders investments.The traditional contention is that shareholders are the legal owners of a company and so their interestingnesss should and so be to maximize shareholder wealth. luckholders are generally have-to doe with with the following * Current stipend * future day earnings * Dividend form _or_ system of government * Relative The objective of wealth maximization is usually grow into three primary objectives which are pick growth and to make benefit Kaplan 2007184) traditionalistic financial performance measures will be used to measure how RTG has been able to pander its shareholders. Weaknesses of ratio analysisAs illustrated by Owen G (1994386) the following are the main(prenominal) weaknesses of apply ratio analysis * It uses historic information which maybe out of date * Can mislead when making comparisons if accounting policies are incompatible * Can be perverse by one-off transactions * Takes no account of cyclical changes throughout a period * One dimensional To richly assess the business and financial performance of RTG the researcher will similarly use non-financial performance measures through the use of the balance gradecard and other performance measures. The balance scorecardThe match scorecard was real by Kaplan and Norton as cited in Kaplan ACCA P5 (2009) defines it as a tool to translate an organizations vision and sch ema into objectives and measures. It looks at four military positions namely financial perspective, customer perspective internal business perspective and learning and growth perspective. The aim of the balance scorecard is to enable the business to develop a comprehensive framework for translating a companys strategic objectives into a coherent set of goals and performance measures. Kaplan ACCA P5 (2009)Limitations of the balanced scorecard Neely (2002) argues that the most difficult problem of Balanced Score Card (BSC) is that it deficiencys several(prenominal) important interest groups in its structure such as suppliers, co-operation partners and close neighbors. The worldwide Institute of Management (2002) states the following slaying pit kick the buckets and confinements of the Balanced Score Card * get the jacket to fit the person do not cut the person to fit. * The balanced scorecard should not be balanced, achievement factors are not equal and their relationships are no t linear.Trying to balance the scorecard will lead to confusion, conflict and lack of focus. * Insufficient cause and effect relationships and performance drivers. * Conflict of interest (different stakeholders penury different things) * Measuring intangible additions (information and human hood) is difficult. different measures of performance The researcher will also use other Critical conquest factors and Key performance indicators such as revenue per and way of life occupation evaluate, among others to in full analyze the performance of RTG Ethical issuesThe researcher took into consideration ethical issues such as confidentiality and objectivity in carrying out the research and analysis. The researcher assured RTG that he was going to use the information he collected strictly for academic purposes. The researcher also assured all the individuals he interacted with that he was going to be objective in analyzing the information they provided. All the information the resear cher obtained was kept secure at all measure to preserve anonymity and confidentiality. . PART 3 Results, analysis, conclusions and recommendationsThis section is dedicated to the manifestation of the data collected, its interpretation, drawing of conclusions and making recommendations. The researcher will start by presenting and analyzing his findings on the financial performance of RTG for the period 2007 to 2009 using ratio and trend analysis. In latter(prenominal) sections the researcher will present his findings and analyze RTGs performance using non-financial performance indicators to assess its business performance. 3. 1 traditional Financial Ratios of RTG 3. 1. 1 Profitability ratios of RTG summary of scratchability was made actually difficult by the hyper pomposityary environment that was in Zimbabwe amid 2007 and 2008. On 14 February 2008, the Central statistical voice announced that the inflation rate for celestial latitude 2007 was 66,212. 3%. On 20 February 2008, the Central statistical Office state that officially, inflation had in January 2008 gone last(prenominal) the 100,000% mark to 100,580. 2%. On 4 April 2008, the Financial Gazette (FinGaz) inform that officially, inflation in February 2008 jumped to 164,900. 3%. On 15 May 2008, the Zimbabwe Independent reported that officially, inflation in March 2008 jumped to 355,000%.On 21 May 2008, SW Radio Africa reported that, according to an independent financial assessment inflation in May 2008 jumped to 1,063,572. 6%. The state statistical value in April 2008 utter there were not fair to middling goods in the shortage-stricken shops to tramp any new (official) figures. On 26 June 2008, the Zimbabwe Independent reported that, latest figures from the Central Statistical Offices (CSO) showed that stratumbook inflation rose wine by 7,336,000 character points to 9,030,000% by June 20 and was set to end the month at well above 10,500,000%.According to Central Statistical Office statisti cs, annual inflation rate rose to 231 million percent in July 2008. The month-on-month rate rose to 2,600. 2%. By December 2008, inflation was estimated at 6. 5 quindecillionnovemdecillion percent (65 followed by 107 zeros) The Zimbabwe Central statistical part stop publishing inflation figures and therefore the Zimbabwe Consumer Price Index was not uncommitted to adjust the 2008 financial statement figures.The historic figures used were out of date and comparison of costs and revenues gave a fake motion picture and thus care should be taken in interpreting them. The researcher therefore could not analyze trends in revenue and cost as they had been heavily malformed by inflation and no adjustments could be made as the Central Statistical Office stopped publishing the inflation figures and the Consumer Price Index. Gross Profit staring(a) do good The gain take in gross get ahead margins of RTG in 2007, 2008 and 2009 were 74%, 99% and 84% respectively. The gross profit mar gin shows the gross profit generated per twain dollar sign of sales.In 2009 Africansun limiteds gross profit margin was 65% therefore showing that although RTGs gross profit margin had decreased from the prior year it was console get out than its competitor. In the researchers interview with Mr L Chasakara RTGs trading operations managing director, he said thatRTG managed to increase its gross profit margin from 74% in 2007 to 99% in 2008 by specifically targeting the domestic market. Sales from the domestic market were change magnitude from 78% in 2007 to 83% in 2008 as the foreign market was deteriorating due to the political instability in Zimbabwe in this period.The researcher only also state that the increase in gross profit margin from 74% in 2007 to 99% in 2008 could have been due to the fact that the use of historical cost in 2008 amplify revenues due to high inflation figures and under utter costs as most costs had been incurred earlier in the year. tax income will generally be over tell in hyperinflationary environments if historical costs are used as costs are ordinaryly incurred forwards revenues are realized. kalet Profit Margin The engagement profit margins of RTG in 2007 was (0. 62%), it rose dramatically in 2008 to 879% indeed decreased once more sharply to 0. 13% respectively. In 2008 the net profit margin was heavily distorted by the RTGS investment income which it gained from trading on the Zimbabwean Stork exchange which was thriving at this time. In 2009 the use of the united States dollar as the official bullion in Zimbabwe (Dollarization) saw inflation displace to to a lower place zero percent. This resulted in more realistic profitability ratios with the gross profit margin dropping to 84% from 99% in 2008 and the operating net profit margin dropping to 0. 913% in 2009 from 879% in 2008.Removing investment income from the net profit before interest and tax in the 2008 statement of financial position gives us a ne t profit margin of 17% which is more indicative of RTGs performance in 2008. The researcher asked Mr L. Chasakara, RTGs operations director if the large sugar that RTG had reported in 2008 were a true meter reading of its performance. Mr L. Chasakara responded utter these were unusual results in unusual circumstances we did what we had to do in exhibition to survive and excel in one of the most hostile economic situations in historyThe trend in the gross profit margin and the operating and the net profit margins of RTG from 2007 to 2009 is presented in the table downstairs stem Kembo H (2011) The table below shows the trend in net profit margin later subtracting investment income from RTGs 2008 net profit before interest and tax Source Kembo H (2011) production on Capital Employed (ROCE) ROCE is an indicator of the managements efficiency in generating profit from resources. In 2007 RTGs ROCE was 2%, it then rose sharply to93. 5% in line with the high pay that were earned in 2008 and then came down to 29. % in 2009. In 2009 Africansun restrain which is RTGs main competitor had a veto ROCE of 18. 75%. Therefore even though RTGs ROCE dropped from 93. 5% in 2008 to 29. 1% in 2009 it alleviate was better compared to its rival in the Zimbabwean tourism industry. RTGs ROCE was also higher than the number borrow rate in 2009 of 15% which meaning that RTG added value to its investors bullion as it managed ROCE above the minimum borrowing rate to compensate for the extra fortune they took upon investing in RTG. addition disturbanceThe addition disorder ratio shows the revenue generated per dollar of assets that is the efficiency of assets in generating revenue. RTGs asset derangement ratio for 2007 was 0. 20 measure per annum then decreased to, 0. 094 generation then rose to 0. 92 times per annum The Asset turnover trend between 2007 and 2009 is shown in the table below Source Kembo H (2011) In 2007 and 2008 investment income contributed to the b ulk of the net profit therefore RTGs asset turnover ratios were really poor at 0. 20 times per annum and 0. 94 times per annumrespectively. This suggests that the group was using its funds for other investments kind of than its operating activities as the operating environment was extremely hostile. In the researchers interview with the Operations director of RTG, heexpressed that this move was necessary for survival as the mismatch of revenues and costs due to hyperinflation meant normal operations of the RTG would result in dangerous losses. Asset turnover of RGT improved dramatically in 2009 rising to 0. 2 times per annum meaning that the group was using its assets in effect to produce revenue. Although RTGs asset turnover ratio improved in 2009 it fades in comparison with its main competitor Africansun limit which had an asset turnover ratio of 1. 32 times a year. This delegacy that RTG was less efficient in generating revenue from its capital than its competitor. Working Capital Ratios Current ratio The period ratio measures the adequacy of real assets to meet liabilities as they fall due. (Financial reportage F7 Kaplan 2009) In 2007 RTGs current ratio was 0. 71 which meant that RTGs could not table service its liabilities in the event that they fall due. In an interview with the researcher the comptroller of RTG Mr G Nzunga said hyperinflation made it difficult to reinforcement too much immediate payment it would quickly be eroded, thus they had to vallecula their resources into the acquisition of tangible assets and keep current assets at a minimum. In2008there was further decrease of the current ratio to 0. 321 as inflation continued to mount and most people discouraged to keep cash or cash equivalents.In 2009 the current ratio of RTG was 0. 761, an benefit from the 2008 current ratio but still not satisfactory. In 2009 the use of the united States dollar as the official currency in Zimbabwe (Dollarization) saw inflation dropping to bel ow zero percent thus the profit as the economic environmentbecame began to normalize. Mr G Nzunga, RTGs restrainer said that RTG was still in a difficult position as far as operative capital management was concerned as a liquidity crisis began across industry soon after dollarization in Zimbabwe in 2009.The company was not generating enough bullion from its day to day activities to pay broadly suppliers and other current liabilities as they cut down due. In 2009 Africansun modified which is the biggest tourism group in Zimbabwes current ratio was 0. 491. The liquidity crisis in Zimbabwe made it very hard for companies in Zimbabwe to bind decent current ratios and most of them had to employ truculent works capital management. With a current ratio of 0. 761 RTG is considered to have performed quite well given the surrounding circumstances. Inventory Turnover compass point callable to lack of information the researcher was unable to calculate RTGs instrument turnover ratios, receivables periods and payables periods for the yearn time 2007-2008 and could only calculate the account turnover ratio, receivables and payables periods for the year 2009. RTGs inventory turnover ratio for the year 2009 was 143 days which was very bad considering the fact the larger percentage of RTGs inventory is food that they sell to guests. Normally in the food industry inventory turnover should be fairly quick so as to preserve the reputation of the company and quality of the meals served.Africansuns inventory turnover in the same period was 70 days which was better than that of RTG in this period. The comptroller of RTG input signaled in this high ratio say that they purchased large amounts storks to avoid the effects of stork outs in the event of food shortages which were plebeian in Zimbabwe in 2008. In 2008 the retail and food industries were almost facing ruin as shelves in shops went empty due to the economic and political challenges Zimbabwe was facing, theref ore it was generally liable for RTG to keep relatively large amounts of stork.Payables limit RTGs payables period was 726 days in 2009 which represents the credit rating period it was taking from its suppliers. RTG had such a bad payables period principally due to liquidity problems that the majority of companies was having in industry and partly as an truculent working capital management strategy. This however resulted in RTG gaining a very bad credit reputation from its suppliers. One of their major security suppliers Chubb Locks Manager was once quoted saying RTG is the worst paying(a) customer in the country.Some suppliers have stopped supplying RTG as a result of RTGs bad credit record but because they are a large firm RTG still gets new suppliers. Some suppliers now demand cash for all purchases made by RTG. RTG has also been coerce to purchase their supplies from more expensive suppliers or poor quality supplies. RTG is also losing out on discounts they could gain by p aying promptly. In an interview with the researcher Mr G Nzunga the accountant for RTG said that the company did not have enough liquid funds to pay all their suppliers.He also stated that it was also part of an vulturine working capital management strategy as they were receiving free financial backing from creditors. He however admitted that the strategy was getting over-aggressive and it was ethically questionable to pursue this strategy any further. In the same period African suns payables period was 12 days which was better than RTGs period and hence its good reputation with suppliers across the industry. Receivables Period The receivables period for RTG in 2009 was 94 days.This was in line with their credit policy which states that the credit period allowable to customers should be three months. The receivables period for African sun was 59 days in 2009 which was better than RTGs period this obviously shows that African sun Limited faces less risk of exposure from irrecovera ble debts. Gearing The adapt ratio indicates the degree of financial risk the company is facing and the sensitivity of earnings and dividends to changes in profitability and activity levels. Kaplan ACCA F7(2009)) In the years 2007 and 2008 RTG did not have any unyielding term borrowing thus the wagon train ratio was zero. This meant that risk for financial risk for RTG was very low. Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe made long term loans difficult to get as any lender would find it very difficult to set interest rate as inflation was highly episodic in this period. The value of any money borrowed could be eroded within days if not hours therefore no companies had purposeful long term liabilities.In 2009 after the introduction of the US Dollar as the official currency in Zimbabwe companies started geared wheel up although the liquidity crisis that followed made it difficult to get funding from local financial institutions. In 2009 the string ratio for RTG was 2%. RTGs appurtenance ra tio was very low and induced very petty(a) credit risk to the shareholders. A low gearing ratio marrow that RTG has the setting to borrow more if there are any profitable ventures in the future and for their current refurbishment and expansion project at their AZambezi River Lodge unit and increasing the groups get on capacity.Financing will also be cheap for RTG as lenders will face very low levels of risk in extending loans to them. In 2009 Africansun Limiteds gearing ratio was also very low at 3. 5% which means it also had low levels of financial risk. The low gearing across industry also reflected the liquidity crisis which was eminent in Zimbabwe in 2009 where lenders did not have the funds to extend loans to firms and they were also still skeptical about the economic and political situation in Zimbabwe. disport CoverInterest cover is the ability of a firm to pay interest out of its profits. In 2009 RTG Interest coverwas1. 52 timesand indicated that the shareholders divide nds were at risk. expect-still the ability of RTG to pay its interests having emerged from difficult economic times should satisfy its shareholders as Africansun Limited its major competitor failed to make profits to pay for their finance costs. Earnings Per Share The earnings per share of RTG for 2008was384 billion Zimbabwean dollars per share and the earnings per share for 2007 was 253. 7 Zimbabwean dollars per share.Converting these figures to United States dollars at the unauthorized exchange rates that were ruling at the 2007 and 2008 year ends would make the respective earnings per share figures less than 0. 000001 US cents. Due to the hyperinflation in these periods the researcher found analyzing these figures very difficultand almost impossible. The earnings per share for RTG in 2009 was USD0. 01 which was quiet impressive compared to its rivals in the tourism industry as most of them. In 2009 the earnings per share for African sun Limited was negative USD0. 8. Customer place Occupancy rates One of the main indicators of performance in the tourism industry is the line of work rate of hotels. RTG managed an line of work rate of 44% in 2007 which was below the Zimbabwean tourism industry average business rate of 45%. In the tourism industry the more customers are cheerful by your service the higher your job rate will be. In 2008 the tenancy rate of RTG decreased by 9% to 37%. The decrease in occupancy rate was due to the economic and political instability during the 2008 Zimbabwean Elections were here was widespread violence in the country, therefore the number of tourists decreased. Most airlines also pulled out of the country ma The industry average room occupancy rate in Zimbabwes tourism industry was 41% which was higher than that of RTG which was 37%. This shows that RTG performed badly compared to peers in the tourism industry. The fall in RTGs occupancy rate can therefore be attributed to failure to satisfy customers better than its riva ls. In 2009 RTGs occupancy rate increased to 40% which was an increase of 3% from the 2008 occupancy rate.The increase could be attributed to the improvement in the political and economic environment in Zimbabwe after the formation of a administration of National Unity (GNU) and the dollarization of the economy. The industry average occupancy rate for 2009 was 31% which was 9% below that of RTG. In an interview with the researcher Mr L Chasakara the operations director for RTG attributed the higher occupancy rate to better soft touch management, better marketing strategies and service excellence. RTGs higher occupancy rate means that it was more able to satisfy its customers better than its competitors.RTGs main competitor and the largest hotel group in Zimbabwe African sun Limiteds occupancy rate in 2009 was 32% showing that RTG performed exceptionally well in 2009 in managing to attract customers The table below shows RTGs occupancy rate compared to the tourism industry average Source Kembo, H(2011) . In an interview Mr G Nzunga RTGs accountant said that the occupancy rates also improved because 65% of their sales come from repeat business from quelled guests and large groups of organizations who hold seminars at RTGs hotels.Service lead time In 2009 RTG managed to reduce its service lead time in its hotels to an average of 20 proceeding between the time food in restaurants and rooms is ordered to the time it is served. In 2007 and 2008 the average service lead time was 30 minutes. Better dressing and process improvement helped in achieving the reduction in service lead time as said by the Mr L Chasakara the operations director for RTG, he also added that benchmarking against the best restaurants also helped in achieving the improvement.In 2007 RTG was not recording complaints in late service delivery to customers but in 2008 RTG save 2700 complaints and the figure improved to 1100 in 2009 which was a 59% improvement. This improvement shows that RTG imp roved in satisfying its customers in 2009. Service spirit RTG keeps books at all its hotels were customers are asked to lay aside a comment on the services they would have received before they leave. A review of these books at two of RTGs units Victoria Falls Rainbow Hotel and AZambezi showed the results presented in the table belowComment 2007 2008 2009 thriving 98% 96% 99% hostile 2% 4% 0. 9% get out Return 68% 80% 70% Will not Return 0% 0% 0% The results from the review of the comment books showed that the majority of guests were satisfied by the service they received on staying at RTG units which means that RTG performed very well in this regard. intrinsic perspective Room service complaints were 3500 in 2007 and increased to 4550 in 2008. This was in general due to the shortage of basic commodities in Zimbabwe in 2008.Shortage of commodities meant that the hotel could not provide its customers with some luxury items they were used to having any time they visited and hen ce the increase in complaints. The Accountant at RTG Mr G Nzunga explained that they made sure that their module would explain the situation very carefully to the customers and extensive training of staff keep in lined that they were able to utilize the few commodities that were available. In 2009 complaints decreased to 2900. This could partly explained by the end of the commodity crisis in Zimbabwe.This also shows that RTG managed to improve its internal processes to reduce the number of complaints they were receiving from customers yearly. accomplishment and innovation RTG has invested heavily in the training of its staff in order to give better service to its customers. RTG has opened a Hotel School for the training of its workers and other outside(a) students. The commitment of RTG to continuously improve its operating processes and learn new ways of doing things has seen them being able to keep costs low and increase room capacity to make when its competitors are making lo sses and their occupancies are dropping.In an interview with the researcher Mr G Nzunga RTGs Accountant said that every worker at RTG attends at to the lowest degree 1 seminar every month in order to keep them abreast of changes and new ways of doing things. Interview review challenge1 In the first question the researcher asked the operations director and the accountant of RTG what their financial and business objectives were. The receptions can be summarized as follows * To be profitable and to create value for our shareholders. * To survive and grow in the long graze thus protecting the interests of all our stakeholders. In 2008 the main objective was to survive in the harsh economic climate in order to save the tourism industry and the Zimbabwean economy itself * To achieve service excellence in tourism and hospitality. unbelief 2 In question 2 the researcher asked the accountant of RTG how they measure their business and financial performance. In response he said RTG assess es its performance through traditional financial performance measures such as ratio analysis and trend analysis and other modern measures oddly the balanced scorecard as they are every bit concerned about the qualitative aspects of performance. query 3 In the third question the researcher asked the accountant and the operations director of RTG if they could explain the trend in the ratios that had been metric from 2007 to 2009 financial statements. They gave mingled explanations for all the fluctuations in these ratios some of them have been quoted in the analysis of these ratios in the section above. The most common response to the financial ratios was that they were unusual results in an unusual environment referring to the hyper inflationary environment that was in Zimbabwe during this period.Question 4 Question 4 was to establish which strategies RTG used to ensure that they met their business and financial objectives. In response the accountant and operations director sketc h the following as some of the strategies they utilise * Employing an aggressive working capital strategy to mitigate the liquidity and operational challenges they were facing * Investing in money markets earlier than core operating activities to improve the cash and revenue inflow. Focusing on the local markets rather than the traditional international markets that had been negatively impacted by bad publicity and political instability. * Process and service improvement through employee training. * Intensive marketing both nationally and internationally * Strict stock management to curb the shortages of basic commodities that were rule as a result of price controls by the government. Questions 5, 6 and 7 These questions were to establish how RTG business and financial performance contributed to the economy and how it can improve its performance in future.In response the interviewees stated that in making profits and surviving through the historic hyperinflationary environment in the period under review RTG saved the tourism industry in Zimbabwe as its dip would have surely resulted in the open of the tourism and hospitality industry. They also stated that they managed to save thousands of jobs and provided business for hundreds of their suppliers. They also stated that to improve performance RTG would spend more on capital through hotel refurbishments and also taking advantage of their low gearing by taking loans thus up working capital.They also stressed the need to advertise and restore the image of Zimbabwe as a tourist destination. Conclusion The researcher found out that RTG uses both financial and non-financial performance measures through the balanced score card which gives a comprehensive framework for performance measurement. This ensures that both quantitative and qualitative performance objectives are assessed. RTG used various strategies to ensure that it met its financial and business objectives which were mainly to survive the harsh economi c environment and to protect its investors employees and all its stakeholders.RTG used strategies such as aggressive working capital management, investing in the money markets or else of its core operational activities and shifting their assistance on the local market rather than the traditional international market. RTG also innovated through constantly innovating and improving its processes to achieve its business and financial objectives. Limitations of results The major limitation of these results is the inaccessibility of inflation adjusted figures for the proper analysis of financial ratios and trend analysis which cogency have given a false picture.The researcher held interviews with only 2 members of the administrator management team which might have given a narrow picture of RTGs performance. Interviewing all members of the management and the get on with would have given the researcher a broader understanding of the business and financial performance of RTG, but time a nd the availability of most of these people was a challenge. The researcher could not visit all RTG companies due to limitation of resources as they are geographically dispersed.This might have limited the researcher especially when he looked at the qualitative aspects of RTGs performance. Recommendations The researcher recommends that RTG should employ less aggressive working strategies. RTGs current working capital strategy may see suppliers refusing to supply them with critical supplies. RTG might also face legal action from its suppliers which may increase its legal costs and even loose customers who may not want to be associated with firms who have bad credit reputation.RTG should thus reduce its payables period to a more reasonable period of by chance 90 days. The researcher also recommends that RTG should increase its gearing levels as they are presently very low in order to take advantage of loans which provide cheaper financing than equity. Zimbabwes reputation as a safe tourism destination was in earnest damaged due to the political and economic instability in 2007 and 2008. The researcher thus recommends that RTG should form partnerships with other players in the tourism industry to market the Zimbabwean brand in the international tourism market.